2023-2024 / PHIL0039-1

Introduction to logic and argumentation


30h Th

Number of credits

 Bachelor in information and communication5 crédits 
 Bachelor in modern languages and literatures : German, Dutch and English5 crédits 
 Bachelor in modern languages and literatures : general5 crédits 
 Bachelor in French and Romance languages and literatures : general5 crédits 
 Bachelor in translation and interpretation5 crédits 
 Certificate in teaching of philosophy and citizenship (not organised in 2022-2023)5 crédits 
 Certificate in teaching of philosophy and citizenship (Arlon - not organised in 2022-2023)5 crédits 


Bruno Leclercq

Language(s) of instruction

French language

Organisation and examination

Teaching in the first semester, review in January


Schedule online

Units courses prerequisite and corequisite

Prerequisite or corequisite units are presented within each program

Learning unit contents

The course will be centered around the problems of defining criteria allowing to distinguish between correct and incorrect reasonings. It will also be a question of identifying typical errors of reasoning.

First chapter will be about deduction as an ideal of perfectly rigorous rationality. Second chapter will deal with dialectical and rhetorical aspects of daily argumentation. Third chapter will be concerned with argumentation schemes and fallacies.

Learning outcomes of the learning unit

Good command of a few theoretical notions of logic and argumentation theory.
Ability to identify the logical structure of reasonings
Ability to identify their argumentation schemes as well as to estimate their correction on the ground of relevant critical questions.
Ability to create short reasonings in accordance with some logical forms, dialectical principles or rhetorical figures of speech.

Prerequisite knowledge and skills

Secondary education. Good command of french language.

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

Oral presentation, reference book, e-learning website, exercice classes with an older student.

Mode of delivery (face to face, distance learning, hybrid learning)

Face-to-face course

Additional information:

The course will take place during the first term (September-December) on Wednesdays from 4:00 pm to 6:00 pm, starting from September 20 2023. Place : Room Grand Physique (place du XX aout, 1st floor of "Aile des Jesuites" building).








Recommended or required readings

Reference book : BOUQUIAUX L. and LECLERCQ B., Logique formelle et argumentation, Bruxelles, De Boeck, 3nd edition, 2017.

References :
On formal deductive logic :
ARISTOTLE, Organon, livre II : les premiers Analytiques, traduction Tricot, Paris, Vrin, 1936.
COPI I. M., Introduction to logic, 8ème edition, New York, Prentice-Hall, 1998.
GOCHET P. et GRIBOMONT P., Logique I, méthodes pour l'informatique fondamentale, Paris, Hermes, 1990.
LEROUX J., Introduction à la logique, Diderot Editeurs, 1998.
LUCAS T. et al., Initiation à la logique formelle, Bruxelles, De Boeck, 2007.
QUINE W. V. O., Méthodes de logique, Paris, Armand Colin, 1984.
VERNANT D., Introduction à la logique standard, Paris, Flammarion, 2001.

On argumentation theory :
HUBIEN H. ed., Le raisonnement juridique, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 1971.
KALINOWSKI G., Introduction à la logique juridique, Paris, LGDJ, 1965.
PERELMAN C. et OLBRECHTS-TYTECA L., Rhétorique et philosophie : pour une théorie de l'argumentation en philosophie, Paris, PUF, 1952.
PERELMAN C. et OLBRECHTS-TYTECA L., La nouvelle rhétorique. Traité de l'argumentation, Bruxelles, Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles, 1992.
PERELMAN C., Justice et raison, Bruxelles, Presses universitaires de Bruxelles, 1963.
PERELMAN C. ed., Les antinomies en droit, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 1965.
PERELMAN C. ed., Le problème des lacunes en droit , Bruxelles, Bruylant, 1968.
PERELMAN C., Eléments d'une théorie de l'argumentation, Bruxelles, Presses universitaires de Bruxelles, 1968.
PERELMAN C., Logique et argumentation, Bruxelles, Presses universitaires de Bruxelles, 1968.
PERELMAN C., Le champ de l'argumentation, Bruxelles, Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles, 1970.
PERELMAN C., La règle de droit, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 1971.
PERELMAN C., Logique juridique, Paris, Dalloz, 1976.
PERELMAN C., L'empire rhétorique : rhétorique et argumentation, Paris, Vrin, 1977.
PERELMAN C. et FORIERS P., La preuve en droit, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 1981.
PERELMAN C. et VANDER ELST R., Les notions à contenu variable en droit, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 1984.
PERELMAN C., Le raisonnable et le déraisonnable en droit : au-delà du positivisme juridique, Paris, LGDJ, 1984.
SCHMETZ R., L'argumentation selon Perelman. Pour une raison au coeur de la rhétorique, Presses Universitaires de Namur, 2000.
TOULMIN S. E., Les usages de l'argumentation, Paris, PUF, 1993.
VAN EEMEREN F. et GROOTENDORST R., La nouvelle dialectique, Paris, Kimé, 1996.
VAN EEMEREN F. et al. ed., Fundamentals of argumentation theory, Mahwah (New Jersey), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.
VAN EEMEREN F. ed., Crucial concepts in argumentation theory, Amsterdam, Sic Sat, 2001.
VANNIER G., Argumentation et droit, Paris, PUF, 2001.

On argumentation schemes and fallacies :ARISTOTE, Organon, livre VI : les réfutations sophistiques, trad. Tricot, Paris, Vrin, 1939.
ARNAULD A. et NICOLE P., La logique ou l'art de penser, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1965.
COPI I. M. et BURGESS-JACKSON K., Informal logic, 3ème édition, London, Prentice Hall, 1996, chapitre 3.
FISCHER D. H., Historian's fallacies, Londres, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971.
HAMBLIN C. L., Fallacies, Londres, Methuen & Co, 1970.
HANSEN H. V. et PINTO R. C. ed., Fallacies, Classical and contemporary readings, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995.
MILL J. S., Système de logique déductive et inductive, Paris, Felix Alcan, 1896, livre V.
WALTON D., Argumentation schemes for presumptive reasoning, London, Routledge, 1995.
WALTON D., REED C. et MACAGNO F., Argumentation schemes, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
WOODS J. et WALTON D.,Critique de l'argumentation, logique des sophismes ordinaires, Paris, Kimé, 1992.


Exam(s) in session

Any session

- In-person

written exam

Additional information:

Written exam (both Multiple Choice Questions and written assignment) in January and September. The exam may also be taken in June by first year students.

No student will be allowed to take the exam on another day than the other students.


A short (optional) essay, which should be uploaded to e-campus board before Wednesday the 20th of December 2023 at the very latest, could exempt the student from two questions of the written exam (counting for 5 points out of 20).

This essay (1 to 2 pages ; around 3000 to 5000 signs) will consist in evaluating some reasoning (produced after July 2023 !) spotted in the media (and which must be provided with accurate information on its source); the evaluation requires 1) spotting a problematic inference, 2) a clear recontruction of the analysed inference, 3) the identification of the inference scheme used, 4) adequate critical questions and 5) a decision on whether the inference is correct or fallacious. Organisation of the thought, clarity and accurateness of the expression, correct language are part of what will be marked.

December 20 is the deadline after which no essay will be taken into consideration.

Results will be released on Saturday the 30th of December.








Work placement(s)

Organisational remarks and main changes to the course

The first session will be held on the 20th of September 2023 at 4pm.





Bruno LECLERCQ Département de Philosophie Place du XX août, 9 (2ème étage) B.Leclercq@uliege.be

Association of one or more MOOCs

Items online